Explaining differences in philanthropic behavior between Christians, Muslims, and Hindus in the Netherlands
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Using survey data from the Netherlands, we find that Muslims have relatively high levels of religious philanthropic behaviour and relatively low levels of secular philanthropic behaviour, whereas Hindus have relatively low levels of religious philanthropic behaviour and higher levels of secular philanthropic behaviour. Results indicate that the community explanation and the conviction explanation of the relationship between religion and philanthropic behaviour are both valid to some extent when it comes to differences in philanthropic behaviour between Christians, Muslims and Hindus. Additionally, we find a relationship between group orientation in worship rituals on the relation between religion and philanthropic behaviour. The more group-oriented the worship rituals, the stronger the relation between religion and philanthropic behaviour. The results suggest that Durkheim’s theory (1897) may only be valid in a Christian context.