Improved Laboratory Values of the H-2 Lyman and Werner Lines for Constraining Time Variation of the Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio
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Two distinct high-accuracy laboratory spectroscopic investigations of the H-2 molecule are reported. Anchor lines in the EF1 Sigma(+)(g)-X-1 Sigma(+)(g) system are calibrated by two-photon deep-UV Doppler-free spectroscopy, while independent Fourier-transform spectroscopic measurements are performed that yield accurate spacings in the B-1 Sigma(+)(u)-EF1 Sigma(+)(g) and I-1 Pi(g)-C-1 Pi(u) systems. From combination differences accurate transition wavelengths for the B-X Lyman and the C-X Werner lines can be determined with accuracies better than similar to 5x10(-9), representing a major improvement over existing values. This metrology provides a practically exact database to extract a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio based on H-2 lines in high-redshift objects. Moreover, it forms a rationale for equipping a future class of telescopes, carrying 30-40 m dishes, with novel spectrometers of higher resolving powers.