Low-dose-rate brachytherapy is superior to high-dose-rate brachytherapy for bladder cancer.
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100 mL), and 1 patient required cystectomy because of a painful ulcer at the implant site. In the LDR group, only 2 of 84 assessable patients developed serious late toxicity. One patient developed a persisting vesicocutaneous fistula and the other a urethral stricture due to fibrosis. The difference in observed late toxicity for HDR vs. LDR was statistically significant (p = 0.005). The increased late toxicity with the HDR schedule compared with the LDR schedule suggests a short repair half-time of 0.5-1 h for late-responding normal bladder tissue. CONCLUSION: Local control of HDR brachytherapy for bladder cancer was disappointing and late toxicity unexpectedly high. The increase in late toxicity suggested a short repair half-time of 0.5-1 h for late-responding normal bladder tissue, which would not support HDR brachytherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. The analysis demonstrated that the calculation of equivalent HDR schedules on the basis of the LDR schedules used in clinical practice might be hazardous.