Antiproliferative activity and mechanism of action of fatty acid derivatives of arabinofuranosylcytosine in leukemia and solid tumor cell lines.
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1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) is a deoxycytidine analog with activity in leukemia, which requires phosphorylation by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) to allow formation of its active phosphate 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate, but can be deaminated by deoxycytidine deaminase. Altered membrane transport is also a mechanism of drug resistance. In order to facilitate ara-C uptake and prolong retention in the cell, lipophilic prodrugs were synthesized. Fatty acid groups with a varying acyl chain length and number of double bonds were esterified at the 5' position on the sugar moiety of ara-C. The compounds were tested in two pairs of ara-C resistant leukemic cell lines (murine L1210 and rat BCLO and their resistant variants L4A6 and Bara-C, respectively) and two pairs of cell lines with a resistance to gemcitabine, another deoxycytidine analog (human ovarian cancer A2780 and murine colon cancer C26-A and their resistant variants AG6000 and C26-G, respectively). L4A6, Bara-C and AG6000 have varying degrees of decreased dCK activity, while the mechanism for C26-G is not yet clear. In the parent cell lines, ara-C was more active, but in the resistant variants several of the analogs were more active, while the degree of cross-resistance varied. In AG6000 with a total dCK deficiency, all compounds were inactive. Structure-activity relation analysis showed that ara-C derivatives with shorter acyl chains and more double bonds were more active in the parental and drug resistant cells. Further mechanistic studies were performed with the elaidic acid derivative of ara-C (CP-4055). CP-4055 inhibited deamination of dCyd partly and induced DNA synthesis inhibition effectively in C26-A and C26-G cells, but the retention of inhibition was much longer for CP-4055 than for ara-C. In contrast to ara-C, CP-4055 inhibited RNA synthesis for 60% after drug exposure. In conclusion, CP-4055 seems to be a promising prodrug, whose effects were different and longer lasting than for the parent drug.