Differential requirements for CTL generation by novel immunostimulants: APC tropism, use of the TAP-independent processing pathway, and dependency on CD80/CD86 costimulation.
Rooijen, N. van
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A major drawback of subunit vaccines is their inability to generate cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL), a deficit attributed to segregation of the class I and class II antigen-processing pathways. We sought to understand processes involved in CTL induction by three proprietary adjuvants: Tomatine, PROVAX, and a synthesized glycolipid (Glc-N-(8/16), Glycolipid). We used in vivo models to investigate antigen uptake, macrophage involvement, TAP-independent processing, and costimulatory molecule dependencies. Glycolipid required splenic and lymph node macrophages, whereas Tomatine generated CTL independently of either macrophage population. In contrast, PROVAX showed partial macrophage requirements. Immunized TAP knockout mice revealed that ovalbumin (OVA)-Tomatine and OVA-PROVAX, but not OVA-Glycolipid, generate class I-peptide complexes. All three immunostimulants also elicited CD86-dependent TH1 cytokine responses.