Intravesical administration of gemcitabine in superficial bladder cancer: a phase I study with pharmacodynamic evaluation.
Berardinis, E De
Born, K. van der
Silverio, F Di
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OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a phase I trial, the local and systemic toxicity and pharmacodynamics of intravesical gemcitabine in patients with superficial bladder cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma localized to the bladder wall (stage T1 or Ta) resistant to previous administration of anticancer drugs and/or of bacille Calmette-Guerin were enrolled. They initially received intravesical gemcitabine starting at 500 mg and increased in 500 mg increments to 2000 mg. Three patients were treated at each dose level. RESULTS: There was no evidence of systemic toxicity and local toxicity was minimal. A pharmacological evaluation showed that gemcitabine was undetectable in plasma and its inactive metabolite (2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine) was present at a mean (SD) concentration of 1.39 (1.05) mumol/L Deoxycytidine kinase was present in tumour tissue samples, and its activity was 27.3 (12.6) pmol/h/mg tissue; deoxycytidine deaminase activity varied from undetectable to 616 pmol/h/mg tissue. CONCLUSION: Intravesical gemcitabine appears to be well tolerated with no systemic and minimal local toxicity even at the highest dose (2000 mg). A phase II trial of intravesical gemcitabine at 2000 mg given weekly for six consecutive weeks is now in progress in patients with superficial bladder cancer.