Human papillomavirus and risk factors for cervical cancer in Chennai, India: a case-control study.
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/=45 years = 4.2) were significantly associated with ICC, also after restricting the analysis to HPV-positive cases and controls. Poor hygienic conditions were associated with an increased risk of HPV infection among control women but not with ICC risk among HPV-positive women. A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 may be effective in more than three-quarters of ICC in the study area.