A vibrational circular dichroism implementation within a Slater-type-orbital based density functional framework and its application to hexa- and hepta-helicenes
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We describe the implementation of the rotational strengths for vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in the Slater-type orbital based Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF) package. We show that our implementation, which makes use of analytical derivative techniques and London atomic orbitals, yields origin independent rotational strengths. The basis set dependence in the particular case of Slater-type basis functions is also discussed. It turns out that the triple zeta STO basis sets with one set of polarization functions (TZP) are adequate for VCD calculations. The origin- dependence of the atomic axial tensors is checked by a distributed origin gauge implementation. The distributed and common origin gauge implementations yield virtually identical atomic axial tensors with the Slater-type basis sets employed here, proving that our implementation yields origin independent rotational strengths. We verify the implementation for a set of benchmark molecules, for which the dependence of the VCD spectra on the particular choice of the exchange–correlation functional is studied. The pure functionals BP86 and OLYP show a particularly good performance. Then, we apply this approach to study the VCD spectra of hexa- and hepta- helicenes. In particular we focus on relationships between the sign of the rotational strengths of the two helicenes.